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This plant is hardy from USDA zones 9b – 11. It doesn’t like to go below 30 degrees F and definitely not for a prolonged period of time. 1 or 2 random nights around freezing will be okay. Older, established bougainvilleas can withstand a freeze much better than newly planted ones. Many varieties will lose part or all of their leaves in climates with winters on the cooler end of the spectrum. Remember, this is one plant that loves sun and heat!
When it comes to watering, bougainvillea is pretty drought tolerant once established. It prefers a good, deep watering every 3-4 weeks rather than frequent shallow waterings.
When establishing, be sure to give your bougainvillea regular water. It’s subject to a few types of root rots so don’t over-water. The soil should be well-drained which will help prevent rot. I plan on doing a post and video on how to plant bougainvillea so I’ll go into the topic of soil more in-depth there. Another result of too much water – more green growth and fewer flowers. No thank you, flowers, please.
I’ve never fertilized bougainvilleas, either when planting or as part of maintenance. I always feed them with compost, a good dose upon planting and a 3″ topping every late winter/early spring every year or 2. I used to work at a nursery in Berkeley where a grower recommended fertilizing them with a palm and hibiscus food.
This flower food would be another option if you feel yours needs fertilizing to up the ante on the bloom. Be sure to follow the directions on the box – an application once or twice a year will be just fine.
In my Santa Barbara garden, aphids could be an issue on the new growth of my bougainvilleas in early spring. I just sprayed them off with a gentle blast of the garden hose.
The bougainvillea looper caterpillar has been an issue with my bougies in Arizona and California. They’re green, brown or greenish-yellow and very tiny – maybe 1″ long. They feed at night and chew mainly on the leaves. I just let them be and they eventually go away. Because my bougies drop a lot of their leaves in the winter, it’s not an issue for me.
A couple of weeks ago leafcutter bees were enjoying 1 of my bougainvilleas, which you’ll see in the video, but now they seem to have moved on. They move fast and are valuable pollinators for many plants. For that reason, I let them be also.
I’m touching briefly on this subject here but I’ll tell you that it’s a crapshoot. Bougainvilleas don’t like to have their roots disturbed. I’ve never transplanted one and don’t recommend it. You’d be better off just buying a new one. If you try it, just be as careful as possible.
The taller growing bougainvilleas need strong support and need to be trained and tied. They aren’t attaching or twining vines. Make sure the ties you use are strong and that you tie them well – some of their branches get to be good-sized. They can be trained on a trellis, over an arbor, on a fence or across a structure. The lower growing varieties are suited to be hedges, ground covers, and free-form shapes (I’ve seen 1 pruned into a swan shape and another into a giant basket). I trained my “Barbara Karst” in Santa Barbara into an “umbrella tree”. They’re also a suitable bonsai plant.
Bougainvillea does fine in containers but I’d recommend using 1 of the lowing growing varieties for this. The taller ones need a very large pot to accommodate the large root systems. A good organic potting soil with a good dose of compost mixed in would make this plant happy.
I’ve done a few posts on pruning bougainvilleas which you can find here on our website. I give mine their big pruning in late winter – this sets the tone for how I want them to grow and look throughout the season. I’ll do 2 or 3 lighter ones after each bloom cycle. If you pinch the tender ends which are about to bloom, the show of color will be denser and not all at the ends. A word of warning: all bougainvilleas that I’ve come across have thorns so use caution when pruning. If you’re not careful, you can come out from a round of pruning looking like you’ve been in the lion cage!
My Bougainvillea glabra in Santa Barbara which I trained across the garage.As you can see, I’ve pruned my Bougainvillea “Rainbow Gold” here in Tucson much differently.
I’m saving the best for last! These flowering machines will bloom year-round in warm climates. In a climate where the winters are cool, they’ll bloom for 9-10 months. The tiny white centers are actually the flowers and the bracts (these are actually colored leaves) are what give us those big shows of color. Bougainvilleas put out a big explosion of color, drop their bracts and then flower again.
The colors you can find bougainvilleas in are: white to yellow to gold to pink to magenta to reddish-purple. Some have 2-toned colors and variegated foliage too. Something for all, except you lovers of blue.
The color of bougainvillea can change after you plant it. This has to do with the breeding. My bougainvilleas, all well established, will change color a bit as the season’s progress. When the temps are cooler, the color seems to be more intense. My “Rainbow Gold” has newer flowers which are orange and then they fade to pink.
If your bougainvillea is growing in part sun, the color could be a bit off. The bottom line: the warmer the spot is where you have your bougainvillea and the more sun it’s in, the more bloom and color you’ll get.
Disclaimer: The image is for reference purposes only. The actual product may vary in shape or appearance based on climate, age, height, etc.